A Selected Bibliography of Tennessee Folklife includes books, journals, and other separate publications on topics related to Tennessee folk arts and traditional culture. This project has been periodically updated since 1984 to include new sources as they appear. The bibliography includes notes on content and availability, and continues to list useful sources that have fallen out of print.

General Resources and Surveys

Birdwell, Michael E. and W. Calvin Dickinson. Rural Life and Culture in the Upper Cumberland. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2004. Anthology of articles on wide-ranging topics in the history and culture of this region.

Cogswell, Robert. Photography by Dean Dixon. Tradition: Tennessee Lives & Legacies. Nashville: Tennessee Arts Commission, 2010. Photos and essays profiling 25 subjects who preserve Tennessee folk arts and practices. Represents a range of genres, cultural groups, and places throughout the state.

Dickinson, Calvin, and Larry Whiteaker, Leo McGee, and Homer Kemp, eds. Lend An Ear: Heritage of the Tennessee Upper Cumberland. New York: University Press of America, 1983. A group of essays on regional folklife, including chapters on traditional architecture, crafts, music, and legendry.

Faulkner, Charles H., and Carol K. Buckles, eds. Glimpses of Southern Appalachian Folk Culture: Papers in Memory of Norbert F. Riedl. Tennessee Anthropological Association, Miscellaneous Paper No. 3. Chattanooga: Tribute Press, 1978. A selection of articles touching on incidental folk art forms and objects as they relate to larger topics in folk culture.

Goehring, Eleanor E. Tennessee Folk Culture: An Annotated Bibliography. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982. Well-indexed bibliography covering diverse sources on all phases of Tennessee folklore and folklife, although its coverage is uneven.

Howell, Benita J. and Susan Stonich. Folklife Along the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River. Knoxville : The University Press of Tennessee, 2003. An overview of folklife in an area encompassing portions of Morgan, Scott, Pickett, and Fentress Counties, touching on music, crafts, and architecture. Revised from a 1981 field report that contributed to planning of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area.

Montell, William Lynwood. Upper Cumberland Country. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993. A regional study of traditional life, including many aspects of folk culture, on the Cumberland Plateau. The area documented encompasses eleven Tennessee counties and adjacent parts of Kentucky.

Olson, Ted. Blue Ridge Folklife. Jackson: Univeristy Press of Mississippi, 1998. A traditional cultural survey, including overviews of history and folklife genres, of the Appalachian highland region that encompasses five counties of Upper East Tennessee

Olson, Ted and Anthony P. Cavender, eds. A Tennessee Folklore Sampler: Selections from the Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, 1935-2009. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2009. An anthology of articles from the Tennessee Folklore Society’s serial publication, selected to represent the breadth of Tennessee folklore and folklife subject matter, the diversity found in different sections of the state, and the history of the society’s interests.

Rehder, John B. Appalachian Folkways. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Press,
2004. A broad overview of Appalachian cultural characteristics and issues, more authoritative on some topics than others. Sections deal with ethnicity, settlement patterns, folk architecture, livelihood, foodways, folk medicine, arts, and language, all particularly relevant to East Tennessee.

Smithsonian Institution. 1986 Festival of American Folklife Program. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. Program book from the 20th anniversary Smithsonian festival, in which Tennessee was the featured state. Includes articles on Tennessee regions, country and African-American music, marble-playing, moonshine and folk medicine, and foodways.

Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin. Quarterly journal issued since 1935, covering all areas of Tennessee folklore and folklife. A comprehensive index to articles was issued in 1973. Yearly indices have followed, and a geographic index (by county) appeared in 1987. Booklets and notes accompanying the society’s award-winning documentary recordings are also excellent sources on the state’s folk music, and available records are listed in current issues. Many back issues are available.

Venable, Sam. Mountain Hands: A Portrait of Southern Appalachia. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 2000. A book of character sketches by a Knoxville News-Sentinel feature writer. Most of the subjects are East Tennessee practitioners of traditional arts and folkways.

Wells, Patricia A. Handbook for Tennessee Folk Artists. 3rd ed, Nashville: Folklife Program, Tennessee Arts Commission, 2008. A technical assistance manual for folk and other grassroots artists, with business, legal, and practical advice related to their activity and participation in arts events and sales. Click here to read or download an online copy.

West, Carroll Van, and Margaret Duncan Binnicker, eds. A History of Tennessee Arts: Creating Traditions, Expanding Horizons. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2004. A range of topics related to Tennessee folklife are unevenly addressed in this ambitious collection of essays and sidebars. Entries on vernacular architecture, pottery, quilts, spoken word, and music are the most useful and reliable from the folklife perspective.

Williams, Michael Ann. Great Smoky Mountains Folklife. Jackson: University Press of
Mississippi, 1995. An overview of the traditional culture of the Smoky Mountains region, including the history of Cherokee and Anglo-American culture in the area, summaries of folk arts and folkways, and effects brought by development of the national park and tourism.

Folk Speech

Hall, Joseph H. The Phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain Speech. Kessinger Publishing, 2007. A thorough study of pronunciations in Smoky Mountain folk speech, by the first linguist to document Appalachian English. Based on Hall’s extensive fieldwork beginning in 1937.

Montgomery, Michael B. and Joseph S. Hall. Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English.
Knoxville: The University Press of Tennessee, 2004. Exhaustive documentation of vernacular lexicon and word usage in this area of Tennessee and North Carolina.

Folk Tales

Aswell, James R., et al. God Bless the Devil!: Liars’ Bench Tales. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985. Reprint of the 1940 original, an edition of folktales collected by the Federal Writers’ Project in Tennessee, with a new introduction by Charles K. Wolfe on the tales and the work of the project.

Mason, Robert L. Folk Tales of Cannon County. Cannon County Historical Society, Publication No. 1. Woodbury, TN: 1977. A short book of locally told folktale texts collected by a scholar involved with area folklife since the 1930s.

Price, Charles Edwin. The Day They Hung the Elephant. Johnson City, TN: The Overmountain Press, 1992. An account of Erwin, Tennessee’s historic local legend tradition, based on an incident in 1916.

Talley, Thomas W. The Negro Traditions. Edited, with an Introduction by Charles K.
Wolfe and Laura C. Jarman. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993. A modern edition of Talley’s unpublished African-American folktale manuscript,originally prepared as a companion to Negro Folk Rhymes. Includes 16 stories presented in dialect with literary frames.

Legends and ghost stories

Coleman, Christopher K. Strange Tales of the Dark and Bloody Ground: Authentic Accounts of Restless Spirits, Haunted Honky-Tonks, and Eerie Events in Tennessee. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press, 1998. Short profiles of various supernatural traditions associated with places in Tennessee, organized by region and presented in journalistic style. Summaries describe the backgrounds and contexts of the legends and report the stories of informants who have had supernatural experiences related to them.

Price, Charles Edwin. Haints, Witches, and Boogers: Tales from Upper East Tennessee. Winston Salem, NC: John F. Blair, Publisher, 1995. A collection of local supernatural legends from Upper East Tennessee, retold for the popular reading audience. Includes annotations of folk narrative motifs.

——-. Haunted Tennessee. Johnson City, TN: The Overmountain Press, 1995. A sampling of local ghost traditions from around Tennessee, presented in literary retellings. Commentaries connect the stories to recurrent folklore themes, but no information about sources is given.

——-. More Haunted Tennessee: A New Collection of Spine-chilling Ghost and Monster Tales from the Volunteer State. Johnson City, TN: The Overmountain Press, 1999. Sequel to Haunted Tennessee retelling additional examples of local Tennessee supernatural stories.

Russell, Randy and Janet Barnett. The Granny Curse and Other Ghosts and Legends from East Tennessee. Winston Salem, NC: John F. Blair, Publisher, 1999. Retellings of local supernatural legends from around East Tennessee. The stories are attributed to specific counties, but source material is not cited.

Legends and ghost stories: The Bell Witch

Bell, Charles Bailey, and Harriet Parks Miller. The Bell Witch of Tennessee. Nashville: Charles Elder, 1972. Most recent reprint of the classic book on the Bell Witch.

Fitzhugh, Pat. Bell Witch: The Full Account. Nashville: Armand Press, c2000. Ebook,
2002: Thorough and well-annotated book on the supernatural legend of Robertson County’s Bell Witch, detailing its complicated 19th century history and later interest in it.

Price, Charles Edwin. The Infamous Bell Witch of Tennessee. Johnson City, TN: The Overmountain Press, 1994. A short book for the popular audience summarizing Tennessee’s best known supernatural legend cycle.

Taylor, Troy. Season of the Witch: The Haunted History of the Bell Witch of Tennessee. Alton, IL: Whitechapel Productions Press, 1999. Another recent popular book giving a detailed account of the Bell Witch story, with a bibliography.

Traditional Music

Beisswenger, Drew. North American Fiddle Music: A Research and Information Guide. New York: Routledge, 2011. This massive reference book contains a fine bibliography on written sources about Tennessee fiddling and fiddlers, including many useful articles from periodicals, pp. 349-62. Other sections on old-time, bluegrass, country, and western swing styles also include references to Tennessee material

Burton, Thomas G., ed. Tom Ashley, Sam McGee, Bukka White: Tennessee Traditional Singers. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1980. Accounts of three outstanding Tennessee folk musicians, representing traditions from each of the grand divisions of the state, written respectively by Ambrose N. Manning and Minnie M. Miller, Charles K. Wolfe, and F. Jack Hurley and David Evans.

Burton, Thomas G., and Ambrose N. Manning. Collection of Folklore: Folksongs. Institute of Regional Studies, East Tennessee State University, Monograph No. 3. Johnson City, TN, 1967. East Tennessee folksongs, with words and music.

Cogswell, Robert, ed. Tennessee Folk Music Recordings: A Recommended List. Nashville: Folklife Program, Tennessee Arts Commission, 1989. A booklet recommending the best recordings available on LP representative of various forms of Tennessee folk music and various parts of the state, as selected by a panel of experts.

Escott, Colin, and Martin Hawkins. Good Rockin’ Tonight: Sun Records and the Birth of Rock ‘n’ Roll. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991. A well-illustrated overview of Memphis recording activity directed by Sam Phillips for his Sun label, which bridged blues, rockabilly, and country musics, folk traditions and commercial offshoots, and black and white musicians during the 1950s and 1960s.

Montell, William Lynwood, ed. Grassroots Music in the Upper Cumberland. Knoxville: The University Press of Tennessee, 2005. An anthology of articles about local music legacies and musicians in upland Tennessee and Kentucky. The Tennessee section includes accounts from Clay, Cumberland, DeKalb, Fentress, Jackson, Macon, Overton, and Putnam counties.

Wolfe, Charles K., ed. Folk Songs of Middle Tennessee: The George Boswell Collection. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997. A selection of over 100 songs collected by Boswell in his Middle Tennessee fieldwork around 1950, with newly composed headnotes and musical notations. This is by far the best printed collection of Tennessee folksongs.

Work, John W. American Negro Songs. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1998. An influential book on Black folk songs, first published in1940, by a Nashville-based African-American scholar.

Zimmerman, Peter Coats. Tennessee Music: Its People and Places. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 1998. A well-illustrated book, intended in part as a travel guide, that covers roots music forms and the modern music industry in Tennessee. Vignettes in the text and sidebar essays treat a wide variety of Tennessee music figures, scenes, and claims to fame.

African-American Sacred

Lornell, Kip. “Happy in the Service of the Lord”: Afro-American Gospel Quartets in Memphis. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988. An overview of the strong African-American tradition of a capella gospel singing in Memphis, charting the histories of local groups since the 1920s. Includes accounts of style and cultural context as well as an extensive discography.

Seroff, Doug. 1988 Gospel Arts Day Nashville Program. Nashville: Nashville Gospel Ministries, 1988. Illustrated booklet from a concert event celebrating Nashville’s African-American religious singing heritage, with essays on its history and on the Fairfield Four gospel quartet, the 1988 honorees.

——-. 1989 Gospel Arts Day Nashville Program. Nashville: Nashville Gospel Ministries, 1989. Booklet includes essays dealing with the spiritual tradition of the Fisk Jubilee Singers and the career of director Mrs. James A. Myers, the 1989 event honoree.

African-American Sacred: Fisk Jubilee Singers

Marsh, J.B.T. The Story of the Jubilee Singers, with Their Songs. Rev. ed., New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969. Originally published in 1881, this book is the official account of the initial decade of the Fisk Jubilee Singers, whose touring raised funds for African-American education at Fisk University and gained worldwide respect for the slave spiritual tradition.

Ward, Andrew. Dark Midnight When I Rise: The Story of the Fisk Jubilee Singers. New York: Amistad, 2001. A detailed and well-annotated history of the Fisk Jubilee Singers, whose international tours in the decades after the Civil War raised funds Nashville’s Fisk University and popularized the African-American musical heritage of the slave spirituals.

African-American Secular

Bowman, Robert M.J. Soulsville, U.S.A.: the Story of Stax Records. New York: Schirmer Books, 1997. An account of the 1960s label that forged the Memphis rhythm & blues sound.

Center for Southern Folklore. The Heritage of Black Music in Memphis: A Teaching Resource Packet. Memphis: Division of Curriculum Development, Memphis City Schools, 1986. A brief teachers’ guide suggesting curriculum activities relating to African-American music traditions in Memphis. The resource list includes an especially valuable discography.

Charters, Samuel. Sweet As the Showers of Rain. New York: Oak Publications, 1977. Sections of this overview of several regional blues traditions are devoted to blues and jugband history in Memphis and the Brownsville area.

Congress, Richard. Blues Mandolin Man: The Life and Music of Yank Rachell. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001. An autobiography of the Brownsville bluesman edited from interviews. Also contains additional commentary and information about Rachell’s career and style.

Garon, Paul and Beth. Woman with Guitar: Memphis Minnie’s Blues. New York: DaCapo Press, 1992. Biography of Lizzie Douglas, who as “Memphis Minnie” was one of the most prominent female figures in blues history, linking country and urban blues styles of the 1930s and 1940s and bridging the Memphis and national blues scenes. Includes detailed analysis of both her career and recorded lyrics.

Hay, Fred J., ed. Goin’ Back to Sweet Memphis: Conversations with the Blues. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001. The story of the blues in Memphis, told through interviews with nine performers.

McKee, Margaret, and Fred Chisenhall. Beale Black and Blue: Life and Music on Black America’s Main Street. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.  _____

Morton, David C., with Charles K. Wolfe. DeFord Bailey: A Black Star in Early Country Music. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991. A biography of the harmonica virtuoso who was the only notable African-American performer on the early Grand Ole Opry, drawing on rare late-life interviews with Bailey.

Night Train to Nashville: Music City Rhythm & Blues, 1945-1970. Nashville: Country Music Foundation Press, 2004. Catalog from an exhibit on Nashville’s under-recognized rhythm-and-blues scene.

Olsson, Bengt. Memphis Blues and Jug Bands. London: Studio Vista, 1970. A concise history of the blues and prominent blues figures in Memphis.

Talley, Thomas W. Negro Folk Rhymes. 1922; rev. ed. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991. A classic pioneer collection of secular African-American folksongs by a Shelbyville native and Fisk University faculty member. The modern edition, with introduction by Charles K. Wolfe, contains musical notation and additional songs excluded from the original.

African-American Secular: W.C. Handy

Handy, W. C. Father of the Blues: An Autobiography. 1944; reprint ed. New York: DaCapo Press, 1985. Autobiographical account of the influential African- American composer and bandleader who popularized the blues and gave Memphis its association with them.

Robertson, David. W.C. Handy The Life and Times of the Man Who Made the Blues. New York: Knopf, 2009. A modern biography of Handy tracing his life not only as a composer who popularized the blues, but also as an African-American businessman and leader.

African-American Secular: Bessie Smith

Albertson, Chris. Bessie Smith. 1972; rev. ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003. A detailed biography of Chattanooga’s Bessie Smith, who as the “Empress of the Blues” became one of the most prominent and influential figures in Black music of the 1920s.

Oliver, Paul. Bessie Smith. New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1959. An early biography of the blues singer by an influential jazz writer.

Scott, Michelle R. Blues Empress in Black Chattanooga: Bessie Smith and the Emerging Urban South. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008. Scholarly account tracing the life of the famous blues singer within African- American and Southern social history.

Anglo-American Sacred

Cobb, Buell E. The Sacred Harp: A Tradition and Its Music. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001. An thorough overview of Sacred Harp religious singing, including updated information about activity in recent times.

Goff, James R., Jr. Close Harmony: A History of Southern Gospel. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Thorough and well-annotated history of commercial Southern Gospel music, in which Tennessee religious singing traditions, publishing activity, and performers played important roles.

Jackson, George Pullen. White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands. 1933; reprint ed., New York: Dover Publications, 1965. The definitive work on shape-note church singing, covering Tennessee’s role in the development and continuance of its tradition.

McDowell, Lucien L. Songs of the Old Camp Ground. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1937. A collection of folk hymns from the Cumberland mountains.

The Sacred Harp. 1991 ed., Sacred Harp Publishing Company. Current edition of the influential 19th century shape-note hymnal long used in Middle Tennessee. Available directly through the non-profit publisher.

Swan, M. L. The New Harp of Columbia. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1978. Reprint of an influential 19th-century shape-note hymnal, with an introductory essay by Dorothy D. Horn, Ron Peterson, and Candra Phillips explaining its tradition, which lives on in annual East Tennessee “sings.”

Terrell, Bob. The Music Men: The Story of Professional Gospel Quartet Singing. Alexander, NC: Mountain Church, 2001. Overview of the history of professional Anglo-American gospel quartets, much of which took place in Tennessee.

Thompson, Fay Jennings. Notes on Shaped Notes: Remembering . . . Some Places, Events, and People in the History of Traditional, Convention-style Gospel Music. Nashville: Fields Publishing, 2003. A book about modern shape-note gospel singing, widely influential in Tennessee during the 20th century.

Anglo-American Secular

Beller, Jim, and Hale Vance. Grass Roots: A Musical Heritage of East Tennessee. Rogersville, TN: Hawkins County Publishers, 2008. A book of articles and biographies about regional country music history, from folk roots through radio and television broadcasting. Copies available through The Rogersville Review, (423) 272-7422.

Cogswell, Robert, ed. Fiddle and Old-Time Music Contests in Tennessee. Nashville: Folklife Program, Tennessee Arts Commission, 1989. An informational and promotional brochure on old-time music contests in the state, covering their history and a schedule of events for the 1990 contest season.

Cox, Bob L. Fiddlin’ Charlie Bowman: An East Tennessee Old-Time Music Pioneer and his Musical Family. Knoxville: The University Press of Tennessee, 2007. A thorough biography of one of the most important fiddlers in early country music.

The Devil’s Box. Quarterly journal of the Tennessee Valley Old Time Fiddlers’ Association, published from 1970 to 1999. A periodical, no longer published, including many articles on Tennessee fiddlers, traditional tunes, and old-time music events.

Fulcher, Bobby. The Cumberland Music Tour. Nashville: Southern Arts Federation and Tennessee Arts Commission, 1988. Program booklet for a concert tour of traditional musicians from the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee and Kentucky. Includes notes on the music traditions and biographies of the artists.

Green, Archie. Only A Miner: Studies in Recorded Coal-Mining Songs. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972. Thoroughly researched accounts of coal-mining songs, traced from their origins to popularization on records. Tennessee is represented both by songs–like “Coal Creek Troubles”–and by a host of musicians who played roles in their histories.

Pitchford, Gayel. Fiddler of the Opry: The Howdy Forrester Story. Tehachapi, CA: Viewpoint Press, 2007. Biography and musical commentary about the influential Hickman County musician long associated with Roy Acuff’s Smoky Mountain Boys. Copies can be ordered through

Rosenberg, Neil V. Bluegrass: A History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985. The definitive history of the string band music style which revitalized traditional country music in the 1940s. Many Tennessee musicians and locales figure in that history, and the style remains very prominent in grassroots music across the state.

Schlappi, Elizabeth. Roy Acuff: The Smoky Mountain Boy. 2nd ed., Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Co., 1992. Biography of Tennessee’s “King of Country Music,” from his folk music roots in Maynardville to his years on the Grand Ole Opry. Includes information on his songs and extensive notes.

Wolfe, Charles K. The Devil’s Box: Masters of Southern Fiddling. Nashville: Country Music Foundation Press, 1997. An anthology of articles on prominent fiddlers who played significant roles in commercializing traditional string music from the 1920s into the 1950s. Includes detailed profiles of Tennessee fiddlers Uncle Jimmy Thompson, G.B. Grayson, Arthur Smith, and Tommy Jackson, references to many others, and extensive information on the overall art, history, and context of southern fiddling.

——-. A Good-Natured Riot: The Birth of the Grand Ole Opry. Nashville: The Country Music Foundation Press and Vanderbilt University Press, 1999. A detailed account of the early years of Nashville’s influential country music radio program, including information on its musicians and their music.

——-. Tennessee Strings: The Story of Country Music in Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1977. A history of country music in the state from folk roots to the rise of the commercial music industry.

——-, and Ted Olson, eds. The Bristol Sessions: Writings About the Big Bang of Country Music. Contributions to Southern Appalachian Studies, No. 12. Jefferson, NC and London, McFarland & Company, Inc., 2005. An anthology of articles about the seminal 1927 record sessions that gave upper East Tennessee a claim in the birth of commercial country music.

Material Culture

Antiques in Tennessee. Reprinted from Antiques Magazine (August-December, 1971). A selection of illustrated articles on historic Tennessee arts and artists, many of them traditional.

Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G. The Upland South: The Making of an American Folk Region and Landscape. Santa Fe: Center for American Spaces, 2003. A cultural geographic study about aspects of regional traditions observable on the landscape. Treatments of vernacular architecture, town layouts, and cemeteries all touch on Tennessee subject matter.

Made in Tennessee: An Exhibition of Early Arts and Crafts. Nashville: Williams Printing Co., 1971. Catalog from an exhibit at the Tennessee Fine Arts Center at Cheekwood, with photographs and descriptions of artifacts representing a variety of early folk arts.

Ray, Larry. Three Stars of Tennessee: With a Focus on Western Tennessee. Jackson, TN: West Tennessee Healthcare Foundation, 2008. A well-illustrated exhibit catalog of historic decorative arts, mostly from West Tennessee, which includes a sampling of folk basketry, architecture, furniture, textiles, and pottery.

Riedl, Norbert F., Donald B. Ball, and Anthony Cavender. A Survey of Traditional Architecture and Related Material Folk Culture Patterns in the Normandy Reservoir, Coffee County, Tennessee. Report of Investigations, No. 17, Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee. Knoxville: Tennessee Valley Authority, 1976. A thorough report on folk buildings, mostly log and frame, and other folk artifacts on the landscape, such as fences, from a particular Tennessee locale, documented through measured drawings, photographs, and statistical data.

Scala, Mark W., Robert Hicks, and Benjamin H. Caldwell, eds. Art of Tennessee. Nashville: Frist Center for the Visual Arts, 2003. Catalog from an historic “fine art” exhibit that contains some material folk arts subject matter. Chairmaking, pottery, textiles, outsider art, and basketry are mentioned and depicted, although commentary draws little contextual connection to folk traditions.

Trout, Ed. Heirlooms & Artifacts of the Smokies: Treasures from the National Park Historical Collection. Gatlinburg: Great Smoky Mountains Association, 2009. Well-illustrated documentation of objects–many handmade products of folk crafts and traditional folklife practices–collected from homesteads and farms located on land now within the park.

Warwick, Rick. Williamson County: More than a Good Place to Live. Nashville: Panacea Press, 2005. A thoroughly illustrated account of historic decorative arts from one Middle Tennessee county, with strongest representation of furniture and textiles. Supported by the Heritage Foundation of Franklin and Williamson County and the Williamson County Historical Society.


Hankins, Caneta Skelley, and Michael Thomas Gavin. Barns of Tennessee. Nashville: Tennessee Electric Cooperative Association, 2009. A survey of various types of historic barns, their building methods and uses, from across the state, with 375 photographs.

Moffett, Marian, and Lawrence Wodehouse. East Tennessee Cantilever Barns. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993. A thorough study of the state’s most distinctive traditional barn type, found throughout extreme east Tennessee. Includes analysis of form, history, and builders, with extensive notes and maps documenting individual structures. Expanded from the authors’ 1984 booklet and exhibit, The Cantilever Barn in East Tennessee.

Morgan, John. The Log House in East Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990. The most thorough study of a folk architecture form in the state, examining log construction in East Tennessee with particular attention to Blount County.

Rehder, John B. Tennessee Log Buildings: A Folk Tradition. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2012. A well-illustrated overview of representative log buildings in the state, based on historic building survey data from 42 counties.


Alvic, Philis. Weavers of the Southern Highlands. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2003. A history of weaving centers involved in the Appalachian Craft Revival at the beginning of the twentieth century. Created by settlement workers, the centers coordinated the making and outside marketing of handwoven textiles to provide home-based income for mountain women. Especially relevant to Tennessee in the book’s account of the Arrowcraft program associated with Pi Beta Phi School at Gatlinburg.

Bullard, Helen. Crafts and Craftsmen of the Tennessee Mountains. Falls Church, VA: The Summit Press Ltd., 1976. An overview of east Tennessee crafts and craftspeople. Both folk and more contemporary arts are represented, and the emphasis is on artisans active at the time the book was written.

Eaton, Allen H. Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands. 1937; reprint ed., New York: Dover Publications, 1973. The classic work on Appalachian crafts in Tennessee and adjoining states. Documents many folk arts and artists, and surveys efforts to revive crafts for economic development of the region.

Harlan, Howard. Duck Calls: An Enduring American Folk Art. Nashville: Harlan- Anderson Publishing, 1988. An illustrated overview of handmade duck calls, their history and artistry. Includes information on major makers from the significant call-making tradition in Tennessee’s Reelfoot Lake area.

Irwin, John Rice. Musical Instruments of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 1979; 2nd ed., Exton, PA: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1983.

——-. Guns and Gunmaking Tools of Southern Appalachia. 1980; 2nd ed., Exton, PA: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1983.

——-.   Baskets and Basket Makers in the Southern Appalachians. Exton, PA: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1982.

——-. Alex Stewart: Portrait of a Pioneer. West Chester, PA: Schiffer Publishing Co., Biographical recollections by Tennessee’s most celebrated folk craftsman, from interview transcriptions, covering not only his work as a cooper, but also detailed observations about many other aspects of Appalachian folklife.

Law, Rachel Nash, and Cynthia W. Taylor. Appalachian White Oak Basketmaking: Handing Down the Basket. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991. A well-illustrated survey of traditional Anglo-American basketry in Tennessee and other Appalachian states, with emphasis on technical and formal aspects of the craft.

The Pottery of Charles F. Decker: A Life Well Made. Jonesborough, TN: Jonesborough/Washington County History Museum and Historic Jonesborough Visitors Center, 2004. Well-researched and attractively illustrated catalog documenting the work of the craftsman generally regarded as Tennessee’s most notable 19th century folk potter. Produced in conjunction with a 2003 exhibit.

Smith, Samuel D., and Stephen T. Rogers. Tennessee Potteries, Pots, and Potters: 1790s to 1950. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Archaeology, Research Series, No. 18. Nashville: 2011. An exhaustive two-volume reference work on traditional Tennessee pottery, over a thousand pages in length, with extensive illustrations on an accompanying CD. This edition includes results of 30 years’ additional research following publication of their earlier A Survey of Historic Pottery Making in Tennessee, Tennessee Department of Conservation, Division of Archaeology, Research Series, No. 3. (Nashville: 1979).

White, Betsy K. Great Road Style: The Decorative Arts Legacy of Southwest Virginia and Northeast Tennessee. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2006. A beautifully illustrated overview of traditional arts from the earliest period of Tennessee settlement, from research and exhibits at the William King Regional Arts Center in Abingdon, VA.

——-. Backcountry Makers: An Artisan History of Southwest Virginia and Northeast Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2013. Profiles of regional artisans from earliest settlement to recent times, including Tennessee cabinetmakers and potters.

Williams, Derita Coleman, and Nathan Harsh. The Art and Mystery of Tennessee Furniture and Its Makers through 1850. Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society and Tennessee State Museum Foundation, 1988. A well-illustrated overview of early Tennessee furniture making, including high style and folk cabinetry and chairmaking. Contains detailed research on craft practices as well as information on specific craftsmen.

Wilson, Joe, ed. Dixie Frets: Luthiers of the Southeast. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Traditional Arts, 1994. Catalog from an exhibit on regional makers of fretted instruments, staged at the Hunter Museum in Chattanooga in connection with the National Folk Festival. Contains biographies of the featured craftsmen, including nine from Tennessee.

Wilson, Sadye Tune, and Doris Finch Kennedy. Of Coverlets: The Legacies, The Weavers. Nashville: Tunstede, 1983. Exhaustive and lavishly presented documentation of a large sample of traditional Tennessee woven textiles. Includes photographs relating to the weavers and extensive notes and charts on patterns and technical details.

Folk and Outsider Art

Crown, Carol, and Cheryl Rivers, eds. Folk Art. The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Vol. 23. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013. A reference book on notable topics and figures in southern folk art. Profiles of self-taught and outsider artists include entries of Tennessee significance on Hawkins Bolden, William Edmondson, Bessie Harvey, Edwin Jeffery, Joe Light, Dionicio Rodriguez, Henry Speller, Billy Tripp, and E.T. Wickham.

Gundaker, Grey, and Judith McWillie. No Space Hidden: The Spirit of African American Yard Work. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005. A survey of traditional African-American yard decorations throughout the South. Tennessee subject matter includes Bishop Washington Harris’ St. Paul Spiritual Temple in Memphis, Bessie Harvey of Alcoa, and various individuals and their yards in Memphis and Chattanooga.

Hendershot, Mary. An Old Man Has Visions: James Walter Bunch. Madisonville, TN: Monroe Area Council for the Arts, 2005. Well-illustrated documentary booklet about the life and art of one of Tennessee’s most remarkable—and little- known—woodcarvers. For information about ordering copies, contact the Monroe Area Council for the Arts.

Knowles, Susan W., ed. E.T. Wickham: A Dream Unguarded. Clarksville: Customs House Museum and Cultural Center, 2001. Exhibit catalog on the work of Montgomery County’s Enoch Tanner Wickham (1883-1970), a self-taught concrete sculptor who created Tennessee’s most notable folk art environment. Includes eight essays, two photographic essays, and a timeline. A poster and audio driving tour, on CD and cassette, also accompanied the exhibit. To inquire about ordering copies or to read texts of catalog essays, visit Customs House Museum.

Manley, Roger. Beyond the Pail: Bucketman Danny Hoskinson and the Art of Fire and Plastic. Cleveland, TN: Museum Center at 5ive Points, 2010. A brief catalog, with many illustrations, from a posthumous exhibit on the work of this Polk County outsider artist. Copies can be purchased by contacting the museum’s gift shop at 423/339-5745.

Mayes, Catherine. A Coal Miner’s Simple Message. Middlesboro, KY: privately published, 1999. An intimate family account of Rev. H.H. Mays, a self-taught evangelical artist whose remarkable career in the Cumberland Gap area is best remembered for the roadside concrete crosses he placed across America. Inquire about availability of copies to Catherine Mayes, P.O. Box 1905, Middlesboro, KY 40965.

Moses, Kathy, Outsider Art of the South. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 1999. Contains profiles of Tennessee artists E.T. Wickham, William Edmonston, Bessie Harvey, Homer Green, Jesse Lee Mitchell, Vannoy Streeter, Henry Speller, and Dow Pugh.

Wicks, Stephen C. Awakening the Spirits: Art by Bessie Harvey. Knoxville: Knoxville Museum of Art, 1997. Catalog from a retrospective exhibit on the self-taught African-American artist from Alcoa who became a major national figure in the “outsider art” movement before her death in 1994.

Folk and Outsider Art: William Edmondson

Cheekwood Museum of Art. The Art of William Edmondson. Nashville: University Press of Mississippi and the Cheekwood Museum of Art, 1999. Catalog accompanying a retrospective exhibit of limestone carver Edmondson’s sculptures. Edmondson (1874-1951) was one of the most important African- American artists of the twentieth century. The catalog includes seven essays and documentary photographs by Louise Dahl-Wolf and Edward Weston.

Fletcher, Georgeanne, ed. William Edmondson: A Retrospective. Nashville: Tennessee Arts Commission, 1981. Catalog from a Tennessee State Museum exhibit on this Nashville stone carver, with extensive illustrations and essays on his work and significance as an African-American folk artist.

Fuller, Edmund L. Visions in Stone: The Sculpture of William Edmondson. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press, 1973. The first illustrated book devoted to Edmondson’s work.

Folklife of Rivers and Waterways

Lund, Jens. Flatheads and Spooneys: Fishing for a Living in the Ohio River Valley. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995. A thorough account of traditional river life, including related crafts and practices, based on documentary fieldwork with fishermen, including some Tennesseans working on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.

Reelfoot Lake: Tradition, Mystery & Lore. Clarksville, TN: Customs House Museum & Cultural Center, 2005. Catalog from an exhibit on the natural and cultural history of one of Tennessee’s most distinctive locales. Folk cultural articles deal with traditions of hunting, duck call making, and boatbuilding. To inquire about ordering copies or to read texts of catalog essays, visit Customs House Museum.

Sayre, Maggie Lee, with Tom Rankin, ed. Deaf Maggie Lee Sayre: Photographs of a River Life. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1995. Remarkable photo- documentation of houseboat life on the Tennessee River, including images and commentary about commercial fishing and other waterways activity over the


Carathers, Ruth Ann Rochelle, ed. A Patchwork of Quilts: 2006 Quit Show, Hickman
County, Tennessee.
Centerville, TN: Hickman County Chamber of Commerce, 2007. Catalog of an impressive initial local quilt show produced by the Hickman County Quilt Show Committee, featuring locally made “Friendship Quilts” as well as “Family Quilts.” Includes color photos of almost 200 quilts along with information about their makers.

——-. Celebrating 200 Years of Stars: The 2007 Quilt Show, Hickman County, Tennessee. Centerville, TN: Hickman County Chamber of Commerce, 2008. Another large selection of locally made and owned quilts, both historic and recent. Photos are accompanied by information about the quilts and makers. Beginning with this second volume, photos of quilters are also included.

——-. Celebrating the Comforts of Home: The Quilts of Hickman County, Volume III. Centerville, TN: Hickman County Chamber of Commerce, 2009. Third in the annual series, with roughly 200 quilts, mostly by known makers documented with photos.

——-. Of Hearth & Home: The Quilts of Hickman County, Volume IV. Centerville, TN: Hickman County Chamber of Commerce, 2010. Documentation of over 200 more local quilts and their makers.

——-. Quilts . . . Homeward Bound: The Quilts of Hickman County, Vol. V. Centerville, TN: Hickman County Chamber of Commerce, 2013. The fifth volume brings the total number of quilts documented in the show and book series to 1,041. Inquiries for updated information about availability of books in the series can be made to Hickman County Quilt Guild, 3117 Hwy. 100, Centerville, TN 37033

Irwin, John Rice. A People and Their Quilts. Exton, PA: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1983. The above books by Irwin, based on research and collection for his Museum of Appalachia in Norris, deal primarily with east Tennessee artifacts, artisans, and lore. All contain photographs and interview materials.

Ramsey, Bets, and Merikay Waldvogel. The Quilts of Tennessee: Images of Domestic Life Prior to 1930. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press, 1986. A well-illustrated and informative overview of historic Tennessee quilts, published in conjunction with a major touring exhibition. The book surveys distinctive aspects of Tennessee quilts, fancy and plain, and documents exemplary quilts and quilters.

Waldvogel, Merikay. Soft Covers for Hard Times: Quiltmaking and the Great Depression. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press, 1990. A catalog, with text and color illustrations, from a Knoxville Museum of Art exhibit on Depression-era quilting in the Tennessee Valley. An insightful analysis of a folk craft in transition during this period, covering topics from quilting out of necessity to various commercial influences on traditional quilting.

Folkways and Customs

Shell, Darren. A Stone’s Throw: The History of Marbles in the Upper Cumberland Region of Tennessee and Kentucky. Fideli Publishing, 2009. A short account of traditional marble-playing on the Cumberland Plateau, including information about various figures and incidents in the history of the practice in recent years. Available directly from author Darnell Shore.


Baum, Rachel. Key Ingredients: Tennessee by Food. Nashville: Humanities Tennessee, Booklet on Tennessee foodways resulting from local exhibit projects in eight communities participating in the Museums on Mainstreet program.

Edgerton, John. Southern Food. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. A thoroughly researched overview of vernacular food by a Nashville author. Covers the entire southern region but contains considerable Tennessee content.

Kail, Tony. Meat, Fire, Wood: The Survival of West Tennessee BBQ Joints. Privately published, 2010. Profiles of smalltown barbeque pits and cooks in rural West Tennessee.

Folk Medicine

Cavender, Anthony, ed. A Folk Medical Lexicon of South Central Appalachia. History of Medicine Society of Appalachia, Misc. Paper No. 1. Johnson City, TN:East TN State University, 1990. Based on field research in the area of Upper East Tennessee, this publication presents a word list of colloquial terms referring to diseases and medical conditions. An interesting case study in folk speech, with important implications for health care.

——-. Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. An overview of regional folk medicine, covering a range of folk cultural issues relating to health and disease. Topics include overall belief system, material medica, specific ailments and treatments, and folk healers.

Folk Religion

Brown, Fred, and Jeanne McDonald. The Serpent Handlers: Three Families and their Faith. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, Publisher, 2000. Accounts of serpent handling from the point of view of members of three families who practice it. One of the families lives in East Tennessee.

Burton, Thomas G. Serpent-Handling Believers. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1993. Thorough account of the history and experience of serpent handling in East Tennessee and elsewhere by a long-time scholar and documentarian of the religious practice.

Folk Dance

McDowell, Lucien L., and Flora Lassiter McDowell. Folk Dances of Tennessee: Old Play Party Games of the Caney Fork Valley. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1938. A collection of group singing dances, with words, music, and charts of movements.

Groups and Cultures

Duggan, Betty J., and Brett H. Riggs. Studies in Cherokee Basketry. Occasional Paper No. 9. Knoxville: The Frank H. McClung Museum, 1991. Publication that accompanied an excellent exhibit on the historical development of Cherokee basketry, including work in the Overhill area of east Tennessee. Includes a reprint of Frank G. Speck’s definitive Decorative Art and Basketry of the Cherokee.

Duncan, Barbara R., and Brett H. Riggs. Cherokee Heritage Trails Guidebook. Chapel Hill, NC: The University Press of North Carolina, 2003. Outgrowth of a multi- state cultural tourism development project, this publication gives an overview of Cherokee history and culture in reference to places along recommended travel routes. Includes coverage of Cherokee homelands in Tennessee’s Overhill area.

Hill, Sarah H. Weaving New Worlds: Southeastern Cherokee Women and Their Basketry. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. A thorough study of a tradition once native to Tennessee and, since the Cherokee removal, still very influential by proximity. The book focuses on basketry as part of Cherokee women’s culture and on various changes in the history of the craft.


Ball, Bonnie. The Melungeons : Notes on the Origin of a Race.   Johnson city, TN: Overmountain, Press, 1992. A good introduction to the distinctive mixed-race East Tennessee social group, covering its traditions, distribution, and theories of origin. Includes a good bibliography.

Bible, Jean Patterson. Melungeons Yesterday and Today. No publisher’s information. Self-published book on the Melungeons with a section containing selected narrative traditions and thorough source annotation.

Callahan, Jim. Lest We Forget : The Melungeon Colony Of Newman’s Ridge. Johnson City, TN: Overmountain, Press, 2000. Well-illustrated and annotated account of the Melungeon people, centering on the Hancock County locale most often associated with them. Includes a good section on the legendary Mahala Mullins.

Kennedy, N. Brent and Robyn Vaughn Kennedy. The Melungeons: The Resurrection of A Proud People : An Untold Story of Ethnic Cleansing In America. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1994. An account of the Melungeons focusing on descendents’ research into family traditions and genealogy.

Schrift, Melissa. Becoming Melungeon: Making an Ethnic Identity in the Appalachian South. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2013. This study explores the background of this long-marginalized Appalachian subculture and the movement by its descendants in recent decades to assertively self-identify as Melungeon.

Unpublished Studies

Alexander, Lawrence S. “A Tradition of White Oak Basketry in Tennessee.” M.A. thesis. University of Alabama, 1983. (About Cannon County.)

Bandy, Lewis David. “Folklore in Macon County, Tennessee.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1940.

Barr, Phyllis Cox. “The Melungeons of Newman’s Ridge.” M.A. thesis. East Tennessee State University, 1965.

Belanus, Betty J. “Evaluating Public Sector Folklore: The Tennessee State Parks Folklife Project.” Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University at Bloomington, 1989.

Berry, Chad. “Folk Custom as a Barometer of Social Change in a Tennessee Community.” M.A. thesis. Western Kentucky University at Bowling Green, 1988.

Bookout, Timmy Joe. “Traditional Basketmakers in the Southeastern and South Central United States.” Ph.D. dissertation. Florida State University, 1987.

Bowman, Robert M.J. “Stax Records: A Historical and Musicological Study.” Ph.D. dissertation. Memphis State University, 1993.

Burks, Jacquelin Daniel. “The Treatment of Melungeon in General Literature and Belletristic Works.” M.A. thesis. Tennessee Technological University, 1973.

Carter, John Ray. “Life and Lore of Reelfoot Lake.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1958.

Collins, Jeanne M. “Sacred Music of the Vernacular Tradition in Knoxville, Tennessee.” M.A. thesis. University of Tennessee Knoxville, 1977.

Crabtree, Lillian. “Folk Songs of Overton County, Tennessee.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1936.

Crews, Emma Katherine. “A History of Music in Knoxville, Tennessee 1791 to 1910.” Ph.D. dissertation. Florida State University, 1962.

Davis, Amy Noel. “’When You Coming Back?”: The Local Country-Music Opry Community.” M.A. thesis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.

Dobson, Jerome Eric. “The Changing Control of Economic Activity in the Gatlinburg, Tennessee Area, 1930-1973.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Tennessee Knoxville, 1975.

Doran, Edwina B. “Folklore in White County, Tennessee.” Ph.D. dissertation.  Peabody College, 1969.

Duncan, Ruby. “Ballads and Folk Songs Collected in Northern Hamilton County.” M.A. thesis. University of Tennessee Knoxville, 1939.

Fleming, Jo Lee. “James D. Vaughan, Music Publisher, Lawrenceburg, Tennessee 1912-1964.” Union Theological Seminary in New York City, 1972.

Fuller, Theodore Edward. “The Blackwood Brothers: A Southern Family and the Commercialization of Southern Gospel Music.” Ph.D. dissertation. Memphis State University, 2005

Gannaway, Mary Ann. “The Singing Games of the Cumberland Mountains in Tennessee.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1935.

Gavin, Michael. “Nineteenth Century Hewn Log Architecture in Southern Middle Tennessee: An Artifactual Study.” M.A. thesis. Middle Tennessee State University, 1995.

Graham, Sandra J. “The Fisk Jubilee Singers and the Concert Spiritual: the Beginnings of an American Tradition.” Ph.D. dissertation. New York University, 2001.

Greene, Maude. “Folklore of Shelby County, Tennessee.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1940.

Haun, Mildred. “Cocke County Ballads and Songs.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1937.

Hodges, Sidney Cecil. “Handicrafts in Sevier County, Tennessee.” M.S. thesis. University of Tennessee Knoxville, 1951.

Ivey, Saundra Keyes. “Oral, Printed, and Popular Culture Traditions Related to the Melungeons of Hancock County, Tennessee.” Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University at Bloomington, 1976.

Kenaston, Monte Ray. “Sharecropping, Solidarity, and Social Cleavage: The Genesis of a Choctaw Sub-Community in Tennessee.” Ph.D. dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 1972. (about Choctaws in Lauderdale County).

Kennedy, Tolbert Hall. “Cultural Effects of Isolation on a Homogeneous Rural Area (Macon County).” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1942.

Lornell, Christopher. “Happy in the Service of the Lord: African American Gospel Quartets in Memphis, Tennessee.” Ph.D. dissertation. Memphis State University, 1983.

MacRae, Ann Cameron. “Women at the Loom: Hand Weaving in Washington County, Tennessee, 1840-1860.” M.A. thesis. University of Tennessee Knoxville, 2001.

Manning, Ambrose N. “Syllabus for a Proposed Course in Folklore at East Tennessee State College.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1955.

Mason, Robert. “Folk-Songs and Folk-Tales of Cannon County, Tennessee.” Peabody College, 1939.

McLean, Francesca. “Like a Duck Plays with Water: The Cultural and Personal Aesthetics of Red Rector and His Music.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, 1993.

McNair, David Thomas. “Memphis Gospel Choir Music, 1990 to 2006.” Ph.D. dissertation. Memphis State University, 2007.

Nicely, Dawn Larsen. “Corn Under Canvas: Reconstructing Toby Shows in Tennessee.” Ph.D. dissertation. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1999.

Owens, Bess Alice. “Some Unpublished Folk-Songs of the Cumberlands.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1930.

Perry, Henry Wacaster. “A Sampling of the Folklore of Carter County, Tennessee.” M.A. thesis. Peabody College, 1938

Peterson, Elizabeth E. “Trickster and Trader: Portrait of an Afro-American Entrepreneur.” Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University at Bloomington, 1990. (about Clay County bluesman and marble-maker Bud Garrett)

Rankin, Thomas Settle. “‘And I’m Still Here’: The Oral Autobiography of Andrew Jones.” M.A. thesis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1983. (about a Lake County performer)

Richardson, Jerry Scott. “The Blues Guitar Style of B.B. King.” Ph.D. dissertation. Memphis State University, 1987.

Rogers, Kara Danielle. “Leaving the Laurel: The Establishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.” M.A. thesis. Indiana University, 1999.

Russell, Judith. “From the Hills of Appalachia to Heaven: Billy Dean Anderson, the Folk Hero and Folk Artist.” M.A. thesis. Middle Tennessee State University, 1995.

Smyth, William Jensen. “Traditional Humor on Knoxville Country Radio Entertainment Shows.” Ph.D. thesis. University of California Los Angeles, 1987.

Turner, Robert Randolph. “Tennessee Legends: An Analysis in Terms of Motifs, Structure and Style.” Ph.D. dissertation. Peabody College, 1970.

Watson, Erica L. “The ‘Dr. Watts Hymns’ of the African-American Church: the Development of a Religious Song Tradition.” M.A. thesis. Memphis State University, 2005.

Wolf, Andrew Godfrey. “The Fiddling Festival: Revivalist Old-Time Music Jam Sessions at Southern Fiddle Conventions.” Ph.D. dissertation. Tufts University, 1990.

Writers’ Program, Work Projects Administration. “Tennessee Place Names.” Tennessee Department of Conservation, 1941.